Reproductive Tract Infections (ReTI) are an important public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries (WHO, 2005). Fungus is one of the many causes of ReTIs. One common type is Candida, a type of yeast that normally lives in the body without causing any problems, but when the environment is right, it multiplies and grows out of control (Neha, 2021).
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is responsible for 90% of the cases of vaginal yeast infections. About 85%–95% of VVC cases are due to infections of normal body flora by Candida albicans, while the rest are caused by Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei infections (Monga, 2011). VVC prevalence rates range between 21%–35% in Nigeria (Jumbo, 2010) and an estimate of ~1,500,000 Nigerian women between the ages 15 and 50 suffer from recurrent VVC at least 4 times annually (Oladele, 2014). In addition, 3 out of 4 adult women will get at least one yeast infection during their lifetime (Sobel, 1997).
VVC causes a smelly, thick, white-yellowish discharge that might be accompanied by itching, burning and swelling. It could also make walking, urinating or having sex very painful. This health problem presents occasionally, even in the healthiest of women, but the common associated risk factors include sexual activity, recent antibiotic use, pregnancy, and immune-suppression from such conditions as poorly controlled HIV infection or diabetes (Nwadioha, 2010). Vaginal candidiasis is usually treated with antifungal medicine.